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  • Python爬取腾讯疫情实时数据并存储到mysql数据库

 

 

 

 

 

 思路:

在腾讯疫情数据网站F12解析网站结构,使用Python爬取当日疫情数据和历史疫情数据,分别存储到details和history两个mysql表。


 

①此方法用于爬取每日详细疫情数据

复制代码
 1 import requests
 2 import json
 3 import time
 4 def get_details():
 5     url = 'https://view.inews.qq.com/g2/getOnsInfo?name=disease_h5&callback=jQuery34102848205531413024_1584924641755&_=1584924641756'
 6     headers ={
 7             'user-agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/70.0.3538.25 Safari/537.36 Core/1.70.3741.400 QQBrowser/10.5.3863.400'
 8         }
 9     res = requests.get(url,headers=headers)
10         #输出全部信息
11         # print(res.text)
12     response_data = json.loads(res.text.replace('jQuery34102848205531413024_1584924641755(','')[:-1])
13     #输出这个字典的键值 dict_keys(['ret', 'data'])ret是响应值,0代表请求成功,data里是我们需要的数据
14 #     print(response_data.keys()) 
15     """上面已经转化过一次字典,然后获取里面的data,因为data是字符串,所以需要再次转化字典
16         print(json.loads(reponse_data['data']).keys())
17         结果:
18         dict_keys(['lastUpdateTime', 'chinaTotal', 'chinaAdd', 'isShowAdd', 'showAddSwitch', 
19         'areaTree', 'chinaDayList', 'chinaDayAddList', 'dailyNewAddHistory', 'dailyHistory',
20         'wuhanDayList', 'articleList'])
21         lastUpdateTime是最新更新时间,chinaTotal是全国疫情总数,chinaAdd是全国新增数据,
22         isShowAdd代表是否展示新增数据,showAddSwitch是显示哪些数据,areaTree中有全国疫情数据
23     """
24     areaTree_data = json.loads(response_data['data'])['areaTree']
25     temp=json.loads(response_data['data'])
26 #     print(temp.keys())
27 #     print(areaTree_data[0].keys())
28     """
29     获取上一级字典里的areaTree
30     然后查看里面中国键值
31     print(areaTree_data[0].keys())
32     dict_keys(['name', 'today', 'total', 'children'])
33     name代表国家名称,today代表今日数据,total代表总数,children里有全国各地数据,我们需要获取全国各地数据,查看children数据
34     print(areaTree_data[0]['children'])
35     这里面是
36     name是地区名称,today是今日数据,total是总数,children是市级数据,
37     我们通过这个接口可以获取每个地区的总数据。我们遍历这个列表,取出name,这个是省级的数据,还需要获取市级数据,
38     需要取出name,children(市级数据)下的name、total(历史总数)下的confirm、heal、dead,today(今日数据)下的confirm(增加数),
39     这些就是我们需要的数据
40     """
41         # print(areaTree_data[0]['children'])
42     #     for province_data in areaTree_data[0]['children']:
43         #     print(province_data)
44 
45     ds= temp['lastUpdateTime']
46     details=[]
47     for pro_infos in areaTree_data[0]['children']:
48         province_name = pro_infos['name']  # 省名
49         for city_infos in pro_infos['children']:
50             city_name = city_infos['name']  # 市名
51             confirm = city_infos['total']['confirm']#历史总数
52             confirm_add = city_infos['today']['confirm']#今日增加数
53             heal = city_infos['total']['heal']#治愈
54             dead = city_infos['total']['dead']#死亡
55 #             print(ds,province_name,city_name,confirm,confirm_add,heal,dead)
56             details.append([ds,province_name,city_name,confirm,confirm_add,heal,dead])        
57     return details
复制代码

单独测试方法:

1 # d=get_details()
2 # print(d)

 

②此方法用于爬取历史详细数据

复制代码
 1 import requests
 2 import json
 3 import time
 4 def get_history():
 5     url = 'https://view.inews.qq.com/g2/getOnsInfo?name=disease_other&callback=jQuery341026745307075030955_1584946267054&_=1584946267055'
 6     headers ={
 7         'user-agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/70.0.3538.25 Safari/537.36 Core/1.70.3741.400 QQBrowser/10.5.3863.400'
 8     }
 9     res = requests.get(url,headers=headers)
10 #     print(res.text)
11     response_data = json.loads(res.text.replace('jQuery341026745307075030955_1584946267054(','')[:-1])
12 #     print(response_data)
13     data = json.loads(response_data['data'])
14 #     print(data.keys())
15     chinaDayList = data['chinaDayList']#历史记录
16     chinaDayAddList = data['chinaDayAddList']#历史新增记录
17     history = {}
18     for i in chinaDayList:
19         ds = '2021.' + i['date']#时间
20         tup = time.strptime(ds,'%Y.%m.%d')
21         ds = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d',tup)#改变时间格式,插入数据库
22         confirm = i['confirm']
23         suspect = i['suspect']
24         heal = i['heal']
25         dead = i['dead']
26         history[ds] = {'confirm':confirm,'suspect':suspect,'heal':heal,'dead':dead}
27     for i in chinaDayAddList:
28         ds = '2021.' + i['date']#时间
29         tup = time.strptime(ds,'%Y.%m.%d')
30         ds = time.strftime('%Y-%m-%d',tup)#改变时间格式,插入数据库
31         confirm_add = i['confirm']
32         suspect_add = i['suspect']
33         heal_add = i['heal']
34         dead_add = i['dead']
35         history[ds].update({'confirm_add':confirm_add,'suspect_add':suspect_add,'heal_add':heal_add,'dead_add':dead_add})
36     return history
复制代码

单独测试此方法:

1 # h=get_history()
2 # print(h)

 

③此方法用于数据库的连接与关闭:

复制代码
 1 import time
 2 import pymysql
 3 import traceback
 4 def get_conn():
 5     """
 6     :return: 连接,游标
 7     """
 8     # 创建连接
 9     conn = pymysql.connect(host="127.0.0.1",
10                     user="root",
11                     password="000429",
12                     db="mydb",
13                     charset="utf8")
14     # 创建游标
15     cursor = conn.cursor()  # 执行完毕返回的结果集默认以元组显示
16     return conn, cursor
17 def close_conn(conn, cursor):
18     if cursor:
19         cursor.close()
20     if conn:
21         conn.close()
复制代码

 

④此方法用于更新并插入每日详细数据到数据库表:

复制代码
 1 def update_details():
 2     """
 3     更新 details 表
 4     :return:
 5     """
 6     cursor = None
 7     conn = None
 8     try:
 9         li = get_details()
10         conn, cursor = get_conn()
11         sql = "insert into details(update_time,province,city,confirm,confirm_add,heal,dead) values(%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"
12         sql_query = 'select %s=(select update_time from details order by id desc limit 1)' #对比当前最大时间戳
13         cursor.execute(sql_query,li[0][0])
14         if not cursor.fetchone()[0]:
15             print(f"{time.asctime()}开始更新最新数据")
16             for item in li:
17                 cursor.execute(sql, item)
18             conn.commit()  # 提交事务 update delete insert操作
19             print(f"{time.asctime()}更新最新数据完毕")
20         else:
21             print(f"{time.asctime()}已是最新数据!")
22     except:
23         traceback.print_exc()
24     finally:
25         close_conn(conn, cursor)
复制代码

单独测试能否插入数据到details表:

1 update_details()

 

 

 

⑤此方法用于插入历史数据到history表

复制代码
 1 def insert_history():
 2     """
 3         插入历史数据
 4     :return:
 5     """
 6     cursor = None
 7     conn = None
 8     try:
 9         dic = get_history()
10         print(f"{time.asctime()}开始插入历史数据")
11         conn, cursor = get_conn()
12         sql = "insert into history values(%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"
13         for k, v in dic.items():
14             # item 格式 {'2021-01-13': {'confirm': 41, 'suspect': 0, 'heal': 0, 'dead': 1}
15             cursor.execute(sql, [k, v.get("confirm"), v.get("confirm_add"), v.get("suspect"),
16                                  v.get("suspect_add"), v.get("heal"), v.get("heal_add"),
17                                  v.get("dead"), v.get("dead_add")])
18 
19         conn.commit()  # 提交事务 update delete insert操作
20         print(f"{time.asctime()}插入历史数据完毕")
21     except:
22         traceback.print_exc()
23     finally:
24         close_conn(conn, cursor)
复制代码

单独测试能否插入数据到history表:

1 # insert_history()

 

⑥此方法用于根据时间来更新历史数据表的内容:

复制代码
 1 def update_history():
 2     """
 3     更新历史数据
 4     :return:
 5     """
 6     cursor = None
 7     conn = None
 8     try:
 9         dic = get_history()
10         print(f"{time.asctime()}开始更新历史数据")
11         conn, cursor = get_conn()
12         sql = "insert into history values(%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"
13         sql_query = "select confirm from history where ds=%s"
14         for k, v in dic.items():
15             # item 格式 {'2020-01-13': {'confirm': 41, 'suspect': 0, 'heal': 0, 'dead': 1}
16             if not cursor.execute(sql_query, k):
17                 cursor.execute(sql, [k, v.get("confirm"), v.get("confirm_add"), v.get("suspect"),
18                                      v.get("suspect_add"), v.get("heal"), v.get("heal_add"),
19                                      v.get("dead"), v.get("dead_add")])
20         conn.commit()  # 提交事务 update delete insert操作
21         print(f"{time.asctime()}历史数据更新完毕")
22     except:
23         traceback.print_exc()
24     finally:
25         close_conn(conn, cursor)
复制代码

单独测试更新历史数据表的方法:

1 # update_history()

 

最后是两个数据表的详细建立代码(也可以使用mysql可视化工具直接建立):

 

复制代码
 1 create table history(
 2     ds datetime not null comment '日期',
 3     confirm int(11) default null comment '累计确诊',
 4     confirm_add int(11) default null comment '当日新增确诊',
 5     suspect int(11) default null comment '剩余疑似',
 6     suspect_add int(11) default null comment '当日新增疑似',
 7     heal int(11) default null comment '累计治愈',
 8     heal_add int(11) default null comment '当日新增治愈',
 9     dead int(11) default null comment '累计死亡',
10     dead_add int(11) default null comment '当日新增死亡',
11     primary key(ds) using btree
12 )engine=InnoDB DEFAULT charset=utf8mb4;
13 create table details(
14     id int(11) not null auto_increment,
15     update_time datetime default null comment '数据最后更新时间',
16     province varchar(50) default null comment '',
17     city varchar(50) default null comment '',
18     confirm int(11) default null comment '累计确诊',
19     confirm_add int(11) default null comment '新增确诊',
20     heal int(11) default null comment '累计治愈',
21     dead int(11) default null comment '累计死亡',
22     primary key(id)
23 )engine=InnoDB default charset=utf8mb4;
复制代码

出处:https://www.cnblogs.com/rainbow-1/p/14550221.html


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