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  • PowerShell在SQL_Server_2008中一些用法

  • 2017-01-07 19:15 来源:未知
 PowerShell早在SQL Server 2005里就已经被集成了, 而我第一次用却在SQL Server 2008中。今天有空总结几个实际例子出来。欢迎这方面专家来完善一下:
  一、先不用SqlServerCmdletSnapin100这个SnapIn来写几个操作常用数据的脚本
  1. 由于有读者问如何用PowerShell显示数据库中表,以下是一个简单函数供参考
 
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#==============================================
 
# SQL Server 2008 - PowerShell
 
# 显示用户表
                   
# <c>zivsoft</c>
 
#==============================================
 
function ShowCustomizedDataTable{
 
    $SQLSERVER=read-host "Enter SQL Server Name:"
 
    $Database=read-host "Enter Database Name:"
 
    $SqlConnection = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlConnection
 
    $CnnString = "Server=$SQLSERVER;Database=$DATABASE;Integrated Security=True"
 
    $SqlConnection.ConnectionString = $CnnString
 
    $SqlCmd = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand
 
    $SqlCmd.CommandText = "select name from sysobjects where type='u'"
 
    $SqlCmd.Connection = $SqlConnection
 
    $SqlAdapter = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataAdapter
 
    $SqlAdapter.SelectCommand = $SqlCmd
 
    $DataSet = New-Object System.Data.DataSet
 
    $SqlAdapter.Fill($DataSet)
 
    $SqlConnection.Close()
 
    $DataSet.Tables[0]
 
}
  2. 显示SQL查询出来的数据
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#==============================================
 
# SQL Server 2008 - PowerShell
 
# 显示查询数据内容
 
# <c>zivsoft</c>
 
#==============================================
 
function Get-DataTable([string]$query)
 
{
 
    $dataSet= new-object "System.Data.DataSet" "DataSetName"
 
    $da = new-object "System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataAdapter" ($query, $CnnString)
 
    [void] $da.Fill($dataSet)
 
    return $dataSet.Tables[0]
 
}
  3. 构建数据库联接字符串
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###################################################################################################
 
# www.zivsoft.com
 
# 设置数据库连接字符串
 
###################################################################################################
 
function global:Set-SqlConnection( $Server = $(Read-Host "SQL Server Name"), $Database = $(Read-Host "Default Database"),  $UserName , $Password  )
 
{
 
    #如果用户名和密码都不为空
 
    if( ($UserName -gt $null) -and ($Password -gt $null)) {
 
        $login = "User Id = $UserName; Password = $Password"
 
    }
 
    else {
 
        #采用整合安全机制登陆
 
        $login = "Integrated Security = True"
 
    }
 
    #数据库连接字符串
 
    $SqlConnection.ConnectionString = "Server = $Server; Database = $Database; $login"
 
}
  4. 另一种风格的获取数据库数据
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#================================================
 
# 类似DataTable GetDataTable(String strSQL)
 
# <author>周利华</author>
 
#================================================
 
function global:Get-SqlDataTable( $Query = $(Read-Host "输入SQL语句"))
 
{
 
    #打开数据库
 
    if (-not ($SqlConnection.State -like "Open")) { $SqlConnection.Open() }
 
   
 
    #实例化SQLCommand
 
    $SqlCmd = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlCommand $Query, $SqlConnection
 
   
 
    $SqlAdapter = New-Object System.Data.SqlClient.SqlDataAdapter
 
    $SqlAdapter.SelectCommand = $SqlCmd
 
   
 
    $DataSet = New-Object System.Data.DataSet
 
    $SqlAdapter.Fill($DataSet) | Out-Null
 
   
 
    $SqlConnection.Close()
 
   
 
    #返回数据库表
 
    return $DataSet.Tables[0]
 
}
  二、以上是普通PowerShell通过ADO.NET操作数据库,下面列出更酷的SQL Server集成的PowerShell命令
  先看一下Invoke-Sqlcmd这个关键的cmdlet的帮助信息:
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NAME
 
    Invoke-Sqlcmd
 
   
 
SYNOPSIS
 
    Runs a script containing statements from the languages (Transact-SQL and XQuery) and commands supported by the SQL Server sqlcmd utility.
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 1 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "SELECT GETDATE() AS TimeOfQuery;" -ServerInstance "MyComputerMyInstance"
 
   
 
   
 
    This example connects to a named instance of the Database Engine on a computer and runs a basic Transact-SQL script.
 
   
 
   
 
    TimeOfQuery
 
    -----------
 
    10/7/2007 1:04:20 PM
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 2 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>Invoke-Sqlcmd -InputFile "C:MyFolderTestSqlCmd.sql" | Out-File -filePath "C:MyFolderTestSqlCmd.rpt"
 
   
 
   
 
    This example reads a file containing Transact-SQL statements and sqlcmd commands, runs the file, and writes the output to another file. Ensure all output files are secured with the appropriate NTFS permissions.
 
   
 
   
 
    Output sent to TestSqlCmd.rpt.
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 3 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>$MyArray = "MYVAR1='String1'", "MYVAR2='String2'"
 
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "SELECT `$(MYVAR1) AS Var1, `$(MYVAR2) AS Var2;" -Variable $MyArray
 
   
 
   
 
    This example uses an array of character strings as input to the -Variable parameter. The array defines multiple sqlcmd variables. The $ signs in the SELECT statement that identify the sqlcmd variables are escaped using the back-tick (`) character.
 
   
 
   
 
    Var1                        Var2
 
    ----                        ----
 
    String1                     String2
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 4 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>Set-Location SQLSERVER:SQLMyComputerMyInstance
 
    Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "SELECT GETDATE() AS TimeOfQuery;" -ServerInstance (Get-Item .)
 
   
 
   
 
    This example uses Set-Location to navigate to the SQL Server PowerShell provider path for an instance of the Database Engine. Then the example uses Get-Item to retrieve an SMO Server object for use as the -ServerInstance parameter of Invoke-Sqlcmd.
 
   
 
   
 
    TimeOfQuery
 
    -----------
 
    10/18/2007 8:49:43 PM
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 5 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "PRINT N'abc'" -Verbose
 
   
 
   
 
    This example uses the PowerShell -Verbose parameter to return the message output of the PRINT command.
 
   
 
   
 
    VERBOSE: abc
 
   
 
    --------------  Example 6 --------------
 
   
 
    C:PS>Set-Location SQLSERVER:SQLMyComputerDEFAULTDatabasesAdventureWorks
 
    Invoke-Sqlcmd "SELECT DB_NAME() AS DatabaseName;"
 
   
 
   
 
    This examples uses a positional string to supply the input to the -Query parameter. It also shows how Invoke-Sqlcmd uses the current path to set the database context to AdventureWorks.
 
   
 
   
 
    WARNING: Using provider context. Server = MyComputer, Database = AdventureWorks.
 
   
 
    DatabaseName
 
    ------------
 
    AdventureWorks
  仔细读完这个帮助,发现,上面所有对.NET Framework中ADO.NET的操作全可以用Invoke-Sqlcmd代替,非常简洁方便。
  比如,获取home数据中所有用户表:
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1 Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "use home;SELECT name as tablename from sysobjects where xtype='U'" -QueryTimeout 3 | ft -auto   
  比如,显示home数据库中userinfo表内容:
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1 Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "use home;SELECT * from UserInfo" -QueryTimeout 3 | ft -auto   

  
  最后,补充,如果直接用SQL Server 2008的Management Studio进去打开PowerShell,便可以直接操作类似Invoke-Sqlcmd的cmdlets,但是如果没有Management Studio怎么办呢?
  很简单,用Add-PSSnapin SqlServerCmdletSnapin100轻松搞定。
 
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